Wednesday, September 4, 2019
Critique of Humes Analysis of Causality Essay example -- Philosophy P
Critique of Hume's Analysis of Causality Hume's analyses of human apprehension and of causality were the most penetrating up to his time and continue to have great influence. Contemporary Spanish philosopher Xavier Zubiri (1893-1983) has examined both and identified three underlying errors: (1) the failure to recognize that there are three stages of human intellection, and especially that the first, primordial apprehension, has quite unique characteristics; (2) the attempt to place an excessive burden on the content of impressions while ignoring what Zubiri terms their 'formality of reality'; and (3) the failure to recognize that functionality, not causality, is the basis for most of our knowledge. Causal chains in general cannot be adequately known, and therefore are not and cannot be the basis of our knowledge of the external world. Only in the area of persons and morality does causality play a critical role. I. Introduction Causality has been a pivotal concept in the history of philosophy since the time of the Ancient Greeks. After David Hume, however, many have questioned whether there is (or can be) any metaphysical meaning of causality, or valid inferences based upon it. Xavier Zubiri (1898-1983) has rethought and reformulated the question of causality in light of its historical roles, well-known criticisms, and relevant contemporary knowledge. In doing so, he has achieved a unique perspective on the subject which should be of great interest to those concerned with causality and any of its applications. II. Hume's critique of causality The figure of David Hume looms large in the philosophical tradition of English-speaking countries; and his two famous analyses, of human apprehension and of causality, were the... ..., (First volume of trilogy, Inteligencia sentiente), Madrid: Alianza Editorial/Sociedad de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1980, p. 82-83. (Hereafter, IRE; unless otherwise indicated, all translations of Zubiri are by the author). (6) IRE, p. 257. (7) IRE, p. 104. (8) Xavier Zubiri, Inteligencia y razÃ ³n, (Third volume of trilogy, Inteligencia sentiente), Madrid: Alianza Editorial/Sociedad de Estudios y Publicaciones, 1983, p. 45. (Hereafter, IRA). (9) Xavier Zubiri, Inteligencia y logos, (Second volume of trilogy, Inteligencia sentiente), Madrid: Alianza Editorial/FundaciÃ ³n Xavier Zubiri, 1982, p. 39-40. (Hereafter, IL). (10) Treatise of Human Nature, p. 74. (11) IL, p. 40. (12) IL, p. 41. (13) IL, p. 41. (14) Xavier Zubiri, Los Problemas Fundamentales de la MetafÃ sica Occidental, Madrid: Alianza Editorial/FundaciÃ ³n Xavier Zubiri, 1994, p. 229.